Case Study Question 2 on d & f Block
Read the passage given below and answer the following questions:
The transition metals when exposed to oxygen at low and intermediate temperatures form thin, protective oxide films of up to some thousands of Angstroms in thickness. Transition metal oxides lie between the extremes of ionic and covalent binary compounds formed by elements from the left or right side of the periodic table. They range from metallic to semiconducting and deviate by both large and small degrees from stoichiometry. Since d- electron bonding levels are involved, the cations exist in various valence states and hence give rise to a large number of oxides. The crystal structures are often classified by considering a cubic or hexagonal close-packed lattice of one set of ions with the other set of ions filling the octahedral or tetrahedral interstices. The actual oxide structures, however, generally show departures from such regular arrays due in part to distortions caused by packing of ions of different size and to ligand field effects. These distortions depend not only on the number of d-electrons but also on the valence and the position of the transition metal in a period or group. (source: Smeltzer, W. W., & Young, D. J. (1975). Oxidation properties of transition metals. Progress in Solid State Chemistry, 10, 17-54.)
In the following questions, a statement of assertion followed by a statement of reason is given. Choose the correct answer out of the following choices on the basis of the above passage.
A. Assertion and reason both are correct statements and reason is correct explanation for assertion.
B. Assertion and reason both are correct statements but reason is not correct explanation for assertion.
C. Assertion is correct statement but reason is wrong statement.
D. Assertion is wrong statement but reason is correct statement.
- Assertion: Cations of transition elements occur in various valence states Reason: Large number of oxides of transition elements are possible.
- Assertion: Crystal structure of oxides of transition metals often show defects. Reason: Ligand field effect cause distortions in crystal structures.
- Assertion : Transition metals form protective oxide films. Reason: Oxides of transition metals are always stoichiometric.
- Assertion: CrO crystallises in a hexagonal close-packed array of oxide ions with two out of every three octahedral holes occupied by chromium ions.
Reason: Transition metal oxide may be hexagonal close-packed lattice of oxide ions with metal ions filling the octahedral voids.