Evolution-Notes

1 Theories of Origin of Life and EvolutionTheories of Origin of Life(i) In previous days, people believed that the universe and life on it was an act and result of God’s creation.(ii) There was, however, no evidence to support these…

Evolution-Formulas

– All formulas of the chapter at one glance. 1 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Hardy-Weinberg principle states that the genetic constitution in a population remains constant if there is no external influence. This statement gives us a formula that is used to solve…

Evidences from morphology and anatomy

1. Comparative morphology and anatomy of individual organ and organ systems of diverse forms of organisms reveal their phylogenetic relationships and thus provides important evidences of evolution.2. Homology is a relationship defined between structures or DNA derived from a common…

Stages in Human Evolution

The following are the stages of human evolution: 1. Dryopithecusi) Ancestors of both man and apes. ii) Lived in China, Africa, Europe and India. iii) Predominantly herbivores2. Ramapithecusi) First remains were discovered from the Shivalik range in Punjab and later in Africa and Saudi…

Sources of variation

Founder effectIt is the effect on the resulting gene pool that occurs when a new isolated population is founded by a small number of individuals possessing limited genetic variation relative to the larger population from which they have migrated.Sewall wright effectThe…

Hardy-Weinberg principle

1. The Hardy-Weinberg principle states that allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant from generation to generation in the absence of other evolutionary influences.2. The Hardy-Weinberg equation is expressed as:   p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 where p is…

Mutation theory of Hugo de Vries

The salient features of mutation theory are as follows:1. Mutations or discontinuous variations are the raw material of evolution.2. Mutations appear all of a sudden. They become operational immediately.3. Unlike Darwin’s continuous variations or fluctuations, mutations do not revolve around…

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