– All formulas of the chapter at one glance.

**1**

**Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium**

Hardy-Weinberg principle states that the genetic constitution in a population remains constant if there is no external influence. This statement gives us a formula that is used to solve the numerical problems of this chapter. Check the formula and the example below.

**2**

**Calculating Age of Fossil**

After the discovery of a fossil, scientists estimate the age of that fossil. How is this done? Check the GIF below for the steps for calculating the age of a fossil.