1. The Hardy-Weinberg principle states that allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant from generation to generation in the absence of other evolutionary influences.

2. The Hardy-Weinberg equation is expressed as:

p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1

where p is the frequency of the “A” allele and q is the frequency of the “a” allele in the population. In the equation, p2 represents the frequency of the homozygous genotype AA, q2 represents the frequency of the homozygous genotype aa, and 2pq represents the frequency of the heterozygous genotype Aa.

3. The sum of the allele frequencies for all the alleles at the locus must be 1, so p + q = 1.4. Five factors that affect Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are:

1) Gene migration or gene flow

2) Genetic drift

3) Mutation

4) Genetic recombination

5) Natural selection