Methods of Contraception
1. Natural Methods
- Periodic Abstinence – Refraining from intercourse during day 10 to day 17 of the menstrual cycle.
- Coitus Interruptus – Retraction of penis before ejaculation to prevent insemination
- Lactational Amenorrhoea – Usually till 6 months after the delivery of a baby, there is no ovulation due to breastfeeding.
2. Barrier Methods They block the entry of the sperms into the female genital tract, and hence prevent fertilization.
- Cervical caps
- Spermicidal creams, foams, jellies
3. Intrauterine Devices These are inserted into the uterus through the vagina. These are the most commonly used contraceptives. These work by reducing sperm motility, causing phagocytosis of sperms and decreasing fertilising ability.
- Copper T
- Lippes Loop
4. Oral Contraceptives
- These are oral pills.
- They are taken from the 5th day of menstrual cycle till the 26th day.
- After a gap for menstruation, the dose has to be repeated for the next cycle similarly.
- These work by preventing ovulation or implantation.
- Saheli is a non-steroidal pill developed by CDRI Lucknow.
5. Injectables and Implants
- These are emergency contraceptives, which need to be administered within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse.
- Progesterone or combination hormones can be injected or placed under skin to act as a contraceptive.
6. Sterilisation/Surgical Methods These are terminal methods of contraception, i.e., they offer permanent and irreversible contraception. The male or female ducts are cut and tied to prevent the release of gametes.
- Vasectomy – A portion of the vas deferens is cut and tied.
- Tubectomy – A portion of the fallopian tubes is cut and tied.