Reproductive health-Concept

Problems of reproductive health in India

1. Over population
2. Early marriage
3. Health of mothers
4. Deformities
5. Maternal mortality rate (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR)
6. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
7. Career

Population explosion

1. Population explosion refers to the rapid and dramatic rise in world population that has occurred over the last few hundred years.

Reasons for rise in world human population

The six main reasons for the sharp rise in world human population in the recent past are as follows:1. Better medical facility (hospitals, health care centres, doctors etc.) for all age group lead to decrease in death rate.
2. There are fewer deaths due to better vaccination programmes and more patients are getting cured and so they live longer.
3. Green revolution has helped in minimizing food shortage, leading to very few starvation death.
4. Due to rise in health awareness, the nutrition intake of the children and people has been improved.
5. Vaccination and immunisation facilities have helped in curing and preventing fatal diseases thereby lowering the death rate.
6. There are fewer infant death due to improved medical technology.
Since, more and more children are reaching the reproductive age, they contribute to population growth.

Fighting against social ills

1. Social evils like sex determination and female foeticide are common due to the development of medical diagnostic tests.
2. The techniques like ultrasound are beneficial to know the foetal viability but it is misused for sex determination which provokes female foeticide.
3. The medical technique can be used to detect genetic disorders.

Strategies for maintaining reproductve health in India

1. Family planning programme
2. Awareness about reproduction
3. Sex education
4. Knowledge of growth of reproductive organs and STDs
5. Birth control devices and care of mother and child
6. Prevention of sex abuse and sex related crime
7. Information about reproduction related problems
8. Research in reproductive health area
9. Medical facilities
10. Amniocentesis


1. Amniocentesis is a technique used to diagnose fetal abnormalities by drawing a sample of amniotic fluid by a hypodermic needle inserted through the mother’s abdomen into the uterus.

Sexually transmitted disease

1. Disease or infections which are transmitted through sexual intercourse with infected persons are collectively called sexually transmitted diseases.
2. For example, HIV-AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis etc.

Mode of transmission of STDs

1. Sexual intercourse with infected person.
2. Sharing of injection needles, surgical instruments etc.
3. Transfusion of blood.
4. Infected mother to foetus.

Medical termination of pregnancy (MTP)

1. MTP is usually done during the first few months of pregnancy.
2. It is usually done by dilation and curettage, vacuum aspiration and by administration of prostaglandin.

Natural methods of birth control

Natural methods of birth control are as follows:
1. Safe period
2. Coitus interruptus (withdrawal or pull-out method)
3. Lactational amenorrhea method

Artificial methods of birth control

Artificial methods of birth control are as follows:
1. Barrier method (spermicides, condoms, femidoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, vaults, IUD)
2. Physiological devices (mini pills, combined pills, emergency contraceptive pills)
3. Injection or implants

Permanent methods of birth control

1. Vasectomy: Removal of short segment of each vas deferens, in male.
2. Tubectomy: Removal of short segment of each fallopian tube, in female.
The surgical operations are minor and are usually performed under local anaesthesia.

Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs)

Inability to produce children is known as infertility. It can be treated with the means of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) that make it possible for childless couples to bear children. This involves:
1. In vitro fertilization (IVF)/Test Tube Baby – Here gametic fusion occurs outside the body in sterile conditions. After the embryo is developed, Embryo Transfer (ET) occurs. ET can be done by:
Zygotic Intra Fallopian Transfer (ZIFT) – Zygote or embryo with =< 8 blastomeres is directly transferred into the fallopian tube or uterus.

2. Gametic Intra Fallopian Transfer (GIFT) – It involves the transfer of gametes from a donor female into the body of a female who can house it but cannot produce an ovum.
3. Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) – Direct injection of sperm into the ovum.
4. Artificial Insemination (AI) – Sperm from a donor is  inserted into the vagina or uterus of a female.

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