1 Mechanism of Action of Artificial Contraceptives
There are various types of contraceptive options available. These can be classified based on the various criteria. One such way of categorizing is by the mechanism of their action:
- BLOCK: Block the meeting of sperms with egg. Hence, these are achieved by barrier methods. (e.g. condoms, diaphragms, etc.)
- DISABLE: Disable the sperms by immobilizing and destroying them. These are thus the chemical methods. (e.g. spermicidal creams, jellies, etc.)
- SUPPRESS: Suppress the process of egg maturation in the ovary and this is done by controlling the progesterone and estrogen hormones. Hence these are hormonal methods. (e.g. contraceptive pills like Saheli) Check out the video for a better idea about the mechanism of action of contraceptives. Video: How do contraceptives work? – NWHunter – YouTube
2 Types of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)
Many individuals suffer from infertility and as a result, they have difficulty in conceiving and having a child. In such cases, assisted reproductive technologies (ART) can help such couples bear children. There are different techniques used in ART, like, IVF, ICSI, GIFT or AI. These can be broadly divided in in-vitro methods of fertilisation (fertilization being done in laboratory) and in-vivo methods of fertilisation (fertilization taking place in the female body).
3 Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) MTP or induced abortion is the voluntary termination of pregnancy/aborting a foetus having genetic defects before the completion of the entire gestation period. It is also suggested if the pregnant woman has life threatening complication if the pregnancy is allowed to continue. MTP was legalized in 1971 by the Govt. of India but with some strict conditions like the recommended period for MTP was decided as 12 weeks i.e. first trimester of pregnancy. But unfortunately, the procedure of MTP was and is misused to kill female foetuses (female foeticide) after sex determination through amniocentesis.